Contraceptive Use in the Shadow of an HIV Epidemic: Individual and Community Effects of Education in Zambia, 1996-2007
Maria A. Stanfors, Lund University
Cecilia Larsson, Lund University
Countries characterized by high fertility and low educational attainment have the potential to increase the adoption of modern contraceptive methods by increasing provision of education. This study investigates the association between contraceptive use and women’s education at the individual and community level in Zambia, by using data from two Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) waves (1996 and 2007). We situate the study in the context of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic since the risk of infection influences decisions regarding fertility and contraception. Logistic regression results confirm that individual education is positively associated with the use of modern contraception but the impact is decreasing over time, while community education is increasing in importance. Community education matters more for condom use than for use of hormonal methods. Expanding provision of education will increase the individual woman’s use of modern contraception and, through her influence, contraceptive use among others in her nearby community.