Intergenerational Ties, One-Child Policy, and Fertility in China: Evidence from the 1982 and 1990 Census

Jasmine Trang Ha, University of Minnesota

This paper analyzes the Chinese Census data for 1982 and 1990 and addresses two questions: (1) How does the relationship between intergenerational ties and fertility look like before and after the One-Child Policy was implemented?; and (2) Are there variations at two time points, in 1982 (3 years after policy implementation) and in 1990 (11 years after policy implementation)? I find evidence showing that the relationship between intergeneration co-residence and adult daughters’ fertility changed after the Policy was implemented, suggesting that intergenerational co-residence might have become more of a burden rather than resource for adult daughters’ fertility, especially when the cost of having an additional child includes paying hefty fines. However, the association between mother's and adult daughter's fertility are not identical at the two time points: it was negative in year 1982, but became positive in 1990; suggesting that the pro-natalist culture might continue to have its long-lasting impact despite enforcement of the One-Child policy.

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 Presented in Session P3. Fertility Intentions and Behaviors