Migration, Livelihood, and Energy Transition of Rural Farming Households
Seung Yong Han, Arizona State University
This study examines the effects of migration and household capitals on energy transition in the setting of Chitwan, Nepal, which is undergoing rapid socioeconomic and environmental changes in recent years. By using the Chitwan Valley Family Study data collected since 1996, event history analysis explores the bi-directional transition between traditional and modern energy sources. The results shows that migration is positively associated with the transition from traditional energy sources to modern ones, especially to gas and kerosene, but not to electricity. Human, physical, and social capitals also affect the transition. For the opposite direction of the transition, while other results are consistent, possessing land increases the likelihood of the transition. Interactive relationships between migration and household capitals are examined as well. In sum, the results suggest that rural households in developing countries constantly juggle their resources for the choice of the main energy sources to adapt to their surrounding conditions.