Changing Levels and Patterns of Under-Five Mortality in Nigeria: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys
Gbemisola Adetoro, Covenant University
Gbolahan Oni, Covenant University
We examined the levels and trends of under-five mortality in Nigeria during ten-year period 2003--2013 using Nigeria Demographic Health Surveys of 2003, 2008 and 2013. Mortality trends were related to some socioeconomic and health variables to explain factors that could have contributed to mortality changes. We used tables and graphical illustrations in the analysis. Results show that mortality declined by 32% (from 187-to-128 per 1000). Across surveys, mortality declined with mothers’ education, but rate of mortality decline is greater among mothers with less than secondary education than those with more education. During the ten-year period, children who had DPT3 increased from 10.4% to 22%. Households who drank water from safe sources increased from 41.7% to 60.6% Childhood diarrhea incidence declined by 45.2%. We conclude that decline in under-five mortality may have resulted from improved immunization, safer water sources, and reduced incidence of childhood diarrhea. Policy implications are discussed.